Marine LE PEN et l’histoire du Front National

Marion Anne Perrine Marine Le Pen was born on August 5, 1968. She is a French politician and lawyer, who is the president of the National Rally. Since 2017 she has been the Member of the National Assembly in the 11th Constituency of Pas-de-Calais.

She is the eldest child of Jean-Marie Le Pen who was the who was the former party leader and aunt of Marion Marechal , former FN MP. Le Pen joined FN in 1986. In 1986, she was elected to the FN’s board of directors as an Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional councillor (1998-2004 and 2010-2015), Ile-de-France (2004)-2010 and Hauts-de-France (2015). She was also elected as a Member of the European Parliament (2004-2017) as and a municipal councillor (2008-2011). With 67.6 percent of the votes cast she was elected the leader of the FN in the year 2011. She finished second in the first round of the election with 21.3% of the vote and faced Emmanuel Macron of centrist party [7] In 2020, she declared her third run for the presidency for the 2022 election.

Le Pen is regarded as more moderate than her father, who is a nationalist who has been a leader in a movement to « de-demonize the National Front » in order to improve its image. The move was due to a change in positions and teams, as and the removal of members who were deemed to be racist as well as antisemitism, antisemitism and Petainism. She expelled her father from the party in August 2015, after he made new controversial statements.[9][10] She has also relaxed some political positions of the party, advocating for civil unions for same-sex couples instead of her party’s previous opposition to legal recognition of same-sex partnerships, accepting unconditional abortion and withdrawing the death penalty from her platform.[11][12][13] A vocal opponent of the United States and NATO, she has pledged to remove France from their spheres of influence.[14]

Time included Le Pen as one of the top 100 influential people around the globe in 2011 and 2015[15][16]. Politico classified her as the second most influential MEP in the European Parliament after Martin Schulz as president of the European Parliament.[1717

Early life and education

Childhood

Marion Anne Perrine Le Pen was born on 5 August 1968 in Neuilly-sur-Seine,[18][19] the youngest of three daughters of Jean-Marie Le Pen, a Breton politician and former paratrooper, and his first wife, Pierrette Lalanne. She was baptized in La Madeleine on 25 April 1969. 20

Yann and Marie Caroline are her two sisters. She has two sisters: Marie Caroline and Yann.

She attended Lycee Florent SchmittSaint-Cloud. Marine was just 16 when her mother passed away. Le Pen stated in her autobiographythat « The most horrible, cruel and crushing pains in my heart resulted from the fact that my mother did not love me. » [2323 In her autobiography, Le Pen said that the result was « the most horrible brutal, cruel and crushing of heartaches that my mother didn’t have love for me. » [24]

Legal studies and work

Le Pen studied law at Pantheon-Assas University. She graduated with the degree of Master of Laws (91) as well as an Advanced Master of Studies(DEA) in both criminal as well as civil law in the year 1992. She practiced law for six consecutive period (1992-1998). Le Pen was a member of the Paris Bar from 1998, when she was appointed to the National Front’s legal department.

Personal life

Roman Catholic. She was married to Franck Chauffroy in the year 1995. He was a senior executive in the business world who was a member of the National Front. The couple had three kids together: Chauffroy: Jehanne, Louis and Mathilde. The couple split in 2006.

She was in an affair from 2009 until 2019, from 2009 to 2019 with Louis Aliot. He is an Algerian Jew, and has French Pied-Noir descent. She is a resident of Beaumont-Henin. She purchased a house in Millas with Aliot. [30]

The beginning of a career in politics

1986-2010 The rise of the National Front

Marine Le Pen joined FN when she was 18 years old in 1986. In 1988, she was an Councillor for the Regional region for Nord-Pas-de-Calais. This was her first mandate in politics. She was appointed to the FN’s legal branch the following year. She was the leader until 2003.

In 2000, she was elected as president of Generations Le Pen. This loose group was close to the party and was aimed towards « de-demonizing » the Front National. [24] In 2000, she was appointed an official part of the FN Executive Committee (French : bureau politique). In 2003, she was vice-president of the FN. In 2006,, she was in charge of Jean-Marie Le Pen’s presidential campaign. In 2007, she served as one of the two executive vice-presidents of the FN who were responsible for communications and training, as well as public relations.

2010-11: Leadership campaign

Le Pen declared her intention to run for the presidency of the FN in the year 2010. She stated she wanted to create « a large and popular party that reaches not just the electorate on right, but also all French citizens ». [3]

The campaign for her leadership was launched in Cuers, Var. on September 3rd, 2010. [37][3838

Despite her father’s controversial remarks regarding the gas chambers as « a part of the history of World WWII », she said they were « the highest point of barbarism ». HTML43

The FN members cast votes in the person to select their central committee president and members. The vote took place in the months of December and January 2011. The party held its congress in Tours between 15 and 16 January. 44. Marine Le Pen was elected president of the FN with a 67.65 percent of the votes (11.546 votes to 5.522 for Bruno Gollnisch)[26][4545 Jean-Marie Le Pen was made an honorary chairman.

Controversy

Marine Le Pen was the center of attention in the media throughout the campaign because of remarks she made in an address to members of the party in Lyon 10/12/10/10. She compared French public squares and streets (in particular rue Myrha, in the 18th arrondissement of Paris) to the place of Muslim prayers, to the Nazi occupation of France. She said:

If the topic is about occupation and you’d like to discuss more about World War II then that is a great topic (Muslim prayers in the streets) because that’s the territory of occupation. It’s an occupation of a portion of the country and regions where religious laws are in force. It’s an occupation of portions of the territory in areas that are subject to the laws of religion. [46] [4747

Her remarks were widely criticized. Francois Baroin (the government’s spokesperson) denied her provocative remarks and also her hatred of others. [48] The French Council of Muslims Faith(CFCM)[50[50] and the International League against Racism and Anti-Semitism, (LICRA][51] also condemned her remarks. Other groups, such as MRAP (Movement against Racism and Friendship Between Peoples)[52] and the French Human Rights Leagues (LDH][53Both groups announced they will file an official complaint. Dalil Boubakeur (ex-president of the CFCM) said that even though her analogy was disputed and ought to be rebuked however she still had an appropriate inquiry.

Le Pen’s partner Louis Aliot,[28] a member of the FN’s Executive Committee, criticized « the attempted manipulation of opinion by communitarian groups and those really responsible for the current situation in France ».[55] On 13 December 2010, Le Pen reasserted her statement during a press conference at the FN headquarters in Nanterre.[56][57][58] After Jean-Francois Kahn’s comments on BFM TV on 13 December 2010, she accused the Elysee Palace of organising « state manipulation » with the intention of demonizing her in public opinion.[59][60]

Lyon the court cleared her on 15 December 2015 of inciting hate. The court ruled that her speech was not directed at all Muslims and therefore was protected under the freedom to voice one’s opinion. [61]

The leadership of the National Front

The FN has been de-monized

Marine Le Pen is generally considered to be less orthodox as compared to her father Jean Marie Le Pen. [citation needed] Many commentators believe that Marine Le Pen to be more moderate than her father, Jean-Marie Le Pen.

Marine Le Pen, traditional Jeanne of Arc March, 3 May 2007

Bernard-Henri Levy was a strong opposition to the FN and was a vocal critic of « a extreme right that has an actual face. » [65] Michele Cotta, a journalist who claims that her father’s opinions regarding the gas chambers was « a incident of World War II history » and that Jean-Marie Le Pen’s deportation in 2015 marked her complete. [69 [69

Le Pen said in a 2010 RTL interview she didn’t plan on altering the FN program, but rather presenting it in the manner it is rather than the image that was portrayed by the media in the last few decades. Le Pen and her political adversaries have been accused of creating an « unfairly inaccurate and caricaturally portrayed picture » of the National Front. She is against the term « extreme-right » or »far-right », and believes it is a derogatory term. … I do not believe that our views ought to be viewed as extreme regardless of the subject. »[70However the extreme far-right (e.g. Minute, Rivarol and Patrick Buisson) criticized her for easing or reversing her views regarding gay marriage, immigration, and abortion. She made a speech in Lyon on 10/12/10, 2010 concerning the situation of gays living in troubled areas due to new laws that replace the law of the republic. [72] [73[73]

She was featured in Foreign Policy in 2014 as one of the four French thinkers. They also share the fact that she has openly declared her support for the discrimination against Jews and has taken an approach that is more liberal to social questions. French historian Nicolas Lebourg concluded that she is looked upon as a compass for them to follow while maintaining local particularities.[75][76]

Other European populists also backed Donald Trump’s candidacy for US president. She stated she believed that « For France, » anything is more than Hillary Clinton. However, she did post an official tweet on the 8th of November 2016 in which she congratulated Trump for his victory.[78][79[79] Nigel Farage said that she did not have any negative comments about Marine Le Pen, but she backed him with the words: « For France, anything is better than a href= »https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hillary_Clinton »>Hillary Clinton ».

Nicolas Sarkozy declared that she was a far-left politician and shared some of JeanLuc Melenchon’s plans. The president Francoise Hollande declared that she was talking « like an advertisement that was distributed by the Communist Party« . Eric Zemmour, a journalist for Le Figaro, stated that the FN is now an extreme left-wing political party because of Florian Philippot’s influence. She has also relaxed some political positions of the party, advocating for civil unions for same-sex couples instead of her party’s previous opposition to legal recognition of same-sex partnerships, accepting current abortion laws, and withdrawing the restitution of the death penalty from her platform.[11][81][82]

2011: The first steps towards becoming an effective leader

Marine Le Pen Supporters in 2011

Marine Le Pen is currently President of Front National and sits as an ex-officio member of the FN Executive Office (8members) and [83] the Executive Committee (42 members)[84] or the Central Committee (3 ex-officio members 100 elected members and 20 coopted members)[85The Central Committee (ex-officio members 100 elected members, 20 coopted members).

Her opening address during Tours 16 January 2011,, calling for « restoration of the political structure within the nation’s community » and the introduction of direct democratic process that lets citizens take on the responsibility for their actions and create a common connection through participation. The main political focus was the insistence on the efficiency of a state that supports secularism as well as other freedoms. She also criticized the « Europe of Brussels » that « everywhere enforced the destructive ultraliberalism principles and trade, at the expense of public utilities, jobs and social equity, even the growth of our economy, which was the weakest in the world in just twenty years. »

She returned to politics on September 10 and 11, 2011, with the slogan « the Voice of the People The spirit of France » at the convention center in Nice. In 1990, she also spoke about security and immigration during her speech at the end. She often held press conferences on thematic issues [93and also gave speeches[94on various topics on various issues in French, European, and international politics.

First presidential candidacy: 2011-2012

Main Articles: French Presidential Election, 2012 and Marine Le Pen Presidential Campaign, 2012.Le Pen, Paris 19 November 2011, Announcement of her presidential candidate (top) and sings  » La Marseillaise « At the conclusion of her talk (bottom).

[96 [96

In a speech in Paris on 19 November 2011, Le Pen presented the main themes of her presidential campaign: sovereignty of the people and democracy, Europe, re-industrialisation and a strong state, family and education, immigration and assimilation versus communitarianism, geopolitics and international politics.[97][98][99] At a press conference on 12 January 2012,[100] she presented a detailed assessment of her presidential project,[101] and a plan to reduce France’s debt.[102] At another press conference on 1 February 2012, she outlined her policies for the overseas departments and territories of France.[103] Many observers noted her tendency to focus on economic and social issues such as globalization and delocalisations, rather than immigration or law and order, which had until then been the central issues for the FN. The first campaign gathering in Metz on the 11/12/11. [105]. From January to April 2012, similar gatherings were held in every important French cities. On April 17, 2012, between 6 000 to 7 thousand people attended her final campaign gathering in the Zenith, Paris.

[110[110

Marine Le Pen during her presidential campaign, on 15 April 2012

The results of the first round: The candidates who received the most votes from every department (mainland France and overseas, and French citizens who live in other countries). Marine Le Pen came first in Gard.

Le Pen polled first in Gard (25.51%, 106,646 votes), with Sarkozy and Hollande polling 24.86% (103,927 votes) and 24.11% (100,778 votes) respectively.[6][111] She also came first in her municipal stronghold of Henin-Beaumont (35.48%, 4,924 votes), where Hollande and Sarkozy polled 26.82% (3,723 votes) and 15.76% (2,187 votes) respectively.[112] She achieved her highest results east of the line from Le Havre in the north to Perpignan in the south,[113] and conversely she won fewer votes in western France, especially big cities such as Paris, overseas and among French citizens living abroad (5.95%, 23,995 votes).[114] However, she polled well in two rural departments in western France: Orne (20.00%, 34,757 votes)[115] and Sarthe (19.17%, 62,516 votes).[116]

Picardy was her top regional score (25.03 percent, 266,041 vote),[117] and Vaucluse was her best departmental score (27.03 percent), 84,585 votes. [118and Saint Pierre and Miquelon were her top overseas performance (15.81 percent and 416 votes).

The results from the initial round: Candidates who received the highest number of votes came from the metropolitan area of France (dark gray: Marine Le Pen).

She was able to get her lowest regional score in Ile-de-France (12.2 percent, 655,926 votes), [120] her lowest score for the department in Paris (6.2 percent, 61.503 votes), [121[121] and also her lowest score for Wallis (2.37 percent) with 152 votes. [122]

Sylvain Crepon (a French sociologist) explained that the FN vote was comprised of people who have suffered from globalization. The financial crisis and pressure from the out-of-town supermarkets have caused small-scale shop owners to fall into financial ruin. Also, it’s low-paid workers working in the private sector, and the unemployment. The poor tend to support the FN as opposed to those who are worried about their survival.  » [113] Crepon also looked at the increase in FN votes in « rural » regions, as well as recent changes in the sociology of these regions. These regions comprise of smaller towns in the provinces as well as new housing estate commuter zones: « The rural poor is no longer agricultural. They are those who have left suburbs and cities to seek more suitable living arrangements. A lot of them have been in the suburbs and are familiar with the problems of insecurity.  » [113] The party got more votes in 2012 than it did in 2011. [113]

Le Pen, in a speech she gave in Paris on 1 May 2012 following the Labor Day march and the Joan of Arc, refused to vote for either incumbent president Sarkozy or socialist Hollande in the runoff vote on 6 May. Le Pen spoke at the annual rally of the party at Place de l’Opera and pledged to vote in a blank manner. She also urged her supporters to cast their votes in accordance with their convictions. Sunday, I’ll cast my vote in a blank manner. I’ve made my choice. Every one of you can decide for yourself. Both candidates were accused of abandoning Europe as well as the markets for financial services. She demanded: « Who among Francois Hollande or Nicolas Sarkozy will enforce the austerity program the most effectively? » Who will be following the International Monetary Fund or the European Central Bank or the European Commission the most? « .[123]

2012-2016: Progress in Electoral Reform

Le Pen announced that an coalition of electoral supporters was created to run in the June 2012 parliamentary elections which is which is also called the Blue Marine Gathering. Le Pen was a candidate for the Pas-de-Calais 11th constituency. She was elected with 42.36 percent, beating Socialist Representative Philippe Kemel (23.50 percent) and the far-left candidate Jean-Luc Melenchon (21.48 percent). After losing in the second round with 49.86 percent, she made an appeal to the Constitutional Council. The appeal was rejected despite certain inconsistencies. Two members were elected by the FN: Le Pen’s niece Marion Marechal, and Gilbert Collard.

Le Pen was the leader of the party during the 2014 municipal election as well as senatorial elections. Eleven mayors and two senators were elected. The FN was elected to the chamber of representatives for the first time.

France’s regional elections of 2015

The European elections took place in France on the 24th of May 2014. 24.90 percent of voters voted for FN. Marine Le Pen was first in her North West district, with 33.60 percent. 25 members of FN were elected to the European Parliament in France. In the event that the Juncker Commission was established in July 2014, they opposed the commission. Le Pen announced the establishment of the Europe of Nations and Freedom within a year. It was a parliamentary grouping comprised of the National Front and Lega Nord of Italy. The Dutch Party for Freedom, the Congress of the New Right and the Flemish Vlaams Belang of Belgium and Janice Atkinson, an independent British MEP. Le Pen failed to form the grouping following her initial attempt in 2014. The reason for this was the inability of UKIP as well as the Sweden Democrats to join. Additionally, there were certain controversial statements were that her father made were made by, Jean-Marie Le Pen. Le Pen was a member of the International Trade Commission. In 2016 the Polio classified Le Pen as the second-most influential MEP, second only to Martin Schulz.

Her father, who was an FN member, FN and held two interviews in April of 2015. The interviews included controversial remarks concerning World War II and minorities in France. This led to an internal political crisis within the FN. Marine Le Pen organized a postal vote to ask FN members to amend the party’s constitution to remove her father. J-M Le Pen continued to push for change but the justice annulled the vote. The FN executive board decided to expel Le Pen from the party which he established forty years ago on the 25th of August. Many observers noted Marine’s dependence upon Florian Phillippot who was her most trusted advisor, who was an ex- technocrat of the left. To remove members who were against modifications in the FN under Marine Le Pen’s leadership The party arranged an expulsion.

Le Pen subsequently announced her candidacy for the presidency of the regional council of Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardie in the 2015 regional elections, though she expressed her regret over the proximity of these elections to the next presidential election. Le Pen was first in the race on December 6 with 40.6 percent, and her opponent, the Socialist candidate, who had 18.12 percent, resigned. She also declared her support for her right-wing rival Xavier Bertrand who was able to win with 57.80 percent. Marion her niece was also defeated in the same circumstances, however, by a smaller margin.

2016-2017: Second presidential candidate

Main article: French presidential election, 2017

The polls show that the leading candidate is on top

Marine Le Pen’s 2017 campaign logo

Marine Le Pen declared her candidacy for the 2017 French presidential election on April 8th in 2016. Her campaign has enjoyed a high popularity in opinion polls. Her campaign manager was she was appointed FN Senator David Rachline. French banks were unable to loan money to the FN and this caused difficulties in financing. The FN instead took out EUR9million from the First Czech-Russian Bank, Moscow, in 2014, in spite of European Union sanction that was imposed on Russia following the annexe of Crimea. In February of 2016, the FN requested Russia for a second loan one time in the amount of EUR27 million, however the second loan was never due. [124]

Marine Le Pen during her presidential campaign, on 26 March 2017.

Analysts have suggested that Le Pen’s high polling position in the opinion polls was due to her absence of a party with a primary (consolidating the leadership of Le Pen) and the news surrounding the crisis of migrant refugees and terror attacks that took place within France (reinforcing and broadening her political stances) and the far-right campaign of Nicolas Sarkozy in the Republican primary (enlarging the themes of Le Pen’s campaign). In 2016, Le Pen stated that Donald Trump would win her election. She also stated she wouldn’t launch her campaign until February of 2017. After waiting for the results of the Republican and Socialist primary, she decided to keep her profile on the media minimal and use thematic think tanks to promote her political agenda. Her appearances on the media rarely were well-liked by the public, with Vie Politique watching the TF1 channel on 11 September 2016 and Une ambitious watching M6 on 16 October, 2016.

The media also paid attention to the messages of the FN with a brand fresh Mitterrand-inspired poster that featured her in a rural setting , with the tagline « Appeased France », was made in response to polls which indicated that she was controversial for large sections of the French electorate. The slogan was later changed to « In the name and for the people » after it was perceived as an attempt to make fun of her. In the course of this campaign, posters were removed of the FN logo, as well as Le Pen’s own name.

Le Pen announced her candidacy in Lyon on February 4, 2017, declaring a referendum on France’s participation in the European Union, in the event that she fails to meet her economic, territorial and legislative goals within six months after negotiations. [127 [127 Le Pen’s first TV appearance came four days later.

Campaign

Main article: 2017 Marine Le Pen presidential campaign

The European Parliament voted on March 2 to lift Le Pen’s immunity from prosecution for posting images of violence. In December of 2015, Le Pen tweeted an image of James Foley being executed. The image was taken down after Foley demanded the removal. Le Pen was also charged with wasting EU Parliamentary funds to support her political party. The immunity she received from prosecution did not extend to ongoing investigation by the FN. [128]

Marine Le Pen with Vladimir Putin in Moscow on March 24, 2017.

Le Pen has met with a variety of current heads of state which included Michel Aoun from Lebanon,[129] Idriss deby from Chad, and Vladimir Putin.[131[131]

[132 [132 Arson attacks on the first floor of the building which housed Le Pen’s headquarters for the campaign was carried out at around 3:30 am on 13 April 2017. [133The attack was carried out by a gang of armed men.

2017: Le Pen argued France as a country wasn’t responsible for the Vi roundup ‘d’Hiv’ during which Paris police officers were able to detain Jewish citizens and transferred the detained to Auschwitz during the Holocaust. Le Pen reiterated the Gaullist theory that France wasn’t represented in Vichy but in Charles de Gaulle’s Free France.

Following the incident the shooting, a shooting which targeted police officers was discovered. The shooting was deemed to be as a possible suspect.

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